Category Archives: Academic Writing Tips

How to write an essay

In this article we give you some tips to make an essay. This is a type of text that specifically analyzes a specific topic so that we explain below how to write one and what guidelines should be followed.

Writing an essay is not at all a simple task although following a series of guidelines, and having clear the subject of which we want to speak is not that it will take us an eternity to write it. This is a type of text that can be requested when we are students but it is also a good tool for certain professions.

In general, students (and also those who are not already) have problems in making textual comments, essays, or dissertations. And in most cases, it is not that the student does not know the subject to speak about but does not know how to elaborate and order this information. Today we will talk about how to make an essay.
What is an essay?

The essay is considered a literary genre as are fiction or poetry. We can identify an essay because it is a writing that briefly and in an informative way analyzes, interprets or evaluates a particular theme. Normally, the title shows what the essay is going to and even serves as the central question that vertebra the writing.
It has certain characteristics that make it identifiable: it is written in a formal language, it is informative and it is directed to an audience that does not have to have prior knowledge about the subject, the content is relevant and well documented and the author demonstrates his knowledge about the theme.

Before doing a essay

Before making an essay you have to choose a topic, for example, you can choose “American Literature”. Once we have this we document and study the subject in depth (we search what is, its development, its history, main authors, curiosities, known quotes, images, bibliography …). Finally, it is necessary to delimit the subject once we have before us all the information, for example, “Beginnings of the genre police in North America” ​​and a question that will vertebrata our essay “Why was successful the detective novel in its beginnings?”. Remember that these examples are orientate, ask your teacher about the best orientation for your essay.
Structure of an essay

Introduction.

The first part is the introduction and presents the purpose of the writer, the approach to the theme and the organization of the essay. It usually has an extension of about two paragraphs. In the first one we will make a brief introduction of the subject and in the second we will expose the thesis that we are going to defend by pointing the basic questions to the ones we will try to answer and the logical order that we will follow in the essay.
Development or Body. Here we will try to make a kind of expository text. We must avoid humor, sarcasm or colloquial vocabulary. Here we will follow the logical order presented in the introduction and we will expose each thesis with the specific evidence to support it. For example, one thesis would be that the detective novel was very successful thanks to its publication in low cost supports and the evidence given would be to provide names of Pulp publications, number of copies sold, most successful authors … You can use things like analysis, Comparison and difference, classification and “cause-effect” arguments. Do not forget to enter quotes in quotation marks with their corresponding footer.
Conclusion. The conclusion has two parts. The first will be to summarize what you have explained in section 2 and, finally, to establish a conclusion that can be summarized in a key phrase.
Other elements of the formal presentation of an essay is to make a careful cover and a numbered index with the pages and sections of the essay, we will put it before the Introduction. And after the conclusion we should not forget to make a bibliography with the works or Webs that we have only consulted and with the Works or Webs that we have quoted in the essay.

How to make a book essay in five steps

To write an essay, it is important to know first its main characteristics.
It is a type of personal work, in which the voice of the author prior to a formal structure of writing.
In this article, you are offered a series of steps on how to write an essay about a book.
1. First step: Read and reread the book
A thorough and thorough reading of the book chosen is the first step. If, for example, it is a question of writing an essay about a novel, the reader must be sure to have understood the whole plot, to have analyzed the characteristics of the characters, as well as to have grasped what the author wanted to convey, Global, with the story of his work.

2. Second step: Choose a theme
A book can address a large number of topics. The essay cannot be extremely extensive and confusing and address several topics at once. This would only result in unclear writing for the reader. Therefore, it is necessary to delimit the essay or, to make a global, integral approach of the work, which does not mix too many ideas.
3. Third step: The structure of the essay
While every essay has a free style, making a kind of outline, part by part, can greatly help to understand the ideas or reasoning that will be broken down.

For example, a book that talks about air pollution. The test can perform an analysis on this phenomenon, starting with detailing the concept of pollution and its characteristics and consequences in terms of air. Then the author decides how to structure his essay, he can talk about other aspects, possible solutions to that phenomenon, among other points.

4. Fourth step: The arguments
The arguments are the axis of the work. It is here that the author exposes all his capacity for reasoning, in order to be able to reliably convey what he thinks or proposes in relation to the subject matter.

Some practical tips for writing the arguments:

Try to be original. The essay must always reflect a personal point of view, the author’s own voice. It is not just about explaining a particular topic. It seeks at the same time to convince the idea of ​​the author.
Coherence and structure. A well elaborated argument, has coherence, is easy to understand and above all, it is quite noticeable that the author has thought well the words he has used and the way he presents them to your reader
For example, if we want to write an argument about the reasons why it is necessary to regulate the use of mobiles in schools, we should present the reader with concrete facts that are negative about this, and therefore, argue in favor of a Regulation that is favorable to the development of classes, but at the same time, respecting the freedom of these people.
5. Fifth step. The conclusion
The last step is to do a final review of everything written. With the draft of the essay in front, the author can make a final contribution, highlight an earlier idea, or a brief summary of the main points that have already been developed.

It must always be emphasized that an essay on a book is not a summary of it. It is not a matter of speaking only about what the work is about. The reader who reads this essay, hopes to know the author’s personal vision.

Example of Argument essay

The argument is a concept, part or section of logic that has the mission to convince or demonstrate in a substantiated and systematic way another person or people that what is said is true or is correct. This word is derived from the Latin “argumentum” and can be translated as “conjugate”.

An argument must contain:

Coherence
Congruence
Consistency
Purpose
Sense
Premises and
conclusion
It tries to guide or guide in a logical way who is directed to come to the conclusion adduced in said concept or document and is the use of varied premises that lead to a conclusion.

In other words an argument is the means to express one reasoning and convince another and this can be in both written and verbal form always using logic so that who receives it reaches a final result.

Examples of argument:

First example:

“Here’s a classic argument”:

All men are mortal (Premise major)
Socrates is a man (Premise minor)
Therefore Socrates is mortal (Conclusion)

Second example:

The constitution is the supreme law in the country. (Major premise)
All other laws are inferior to the constitution and derive from it (minor premise)
The civil code is a secondary law and forces everyone to comply (minor premise)
The civil code is a law that derives from the constitution and therefore must be obligatory. (Conclusion)

Third example:

The law says that private individuals can and can not do. (Major premise)
The law does not prohibit a person from getting wet in the rain whenever he wants. (Minor premise)
The law allows everyone to get wet when it rains. (Conclusion)

Fourth example: (False argument)

In cities, people have AIDS (major premise)
Antonio moved to the city (minor premise)
Now Antonio has “AIDS” (Conclusion)

Fifth example: (False argument)

Cristina is a very pretty singer (Premise mayor)
My sister is also called Cristina (Premise minor)
My sister is also a singer (Conclusion)

Sixth example: (False argument)

American Pit bulls are dogs used for clandestine fights (Major Premise)
My son Lorenzo has an American Pit-bull (Premise minor)
My son makes clandestine fights (Conclusion)

What is a thesis?

A subject, no matter how limited it may be, is not a thesis. The thesis of an essay has two main functions: 1) delimit the subject of the work; 2) clearly state the author’s purpose in writing on that particular subject. The best thing is to formulate your thesis in the introductory paragraph of your essay. Thus, you can clearly expose from the beginning the central idea that you will defend and prove throughout the text.

A thesis is what you – and no one else but you! ─ You mean about the subject you decided to try in your essay. It is the idea or point of view that you will defend and test throughout the essay.

Your thesis is expected to invite a reaction, a debate. That is why it is very useful that you conceive it as a problem, that is, as a matter that needs clarification or something that requires a solution.

Example:
After reading The Lizard of Tomes, you may want to write about how the novel criticizes the Spanish society of its time. Thus, “social criticism in El Amarillo de Tomes” is your theme. What you say about that subject will be your thesis, which you must present explicitly in the introduction of your essay. Keep in mind that a thesis usually has more than one sentence. Usually, a good thesis has three to five sentences.

“One of the most outstanding features of the picaresque novel El lazar de Tomes is his keen criticism of Spanish society of the sixteenth century. Since Lazar, the protagonist of the work, lives outside the social norms commonly accepted, can observe the society that surrounds him with the sufficient distance to identify their evils, their vices and their problems. However, these characteristics alone would not be enough to make an effective social critique. In addition to presenting Lazar as a marginal character, the author had to choose a very particular literary resource: autobiographical narrative in the first person. If he had not chosen this type of narration, the author would not have been able to relate the individual story of Lazarus to the classist, corrupt and hypocritical society in which the child had to live. “

Thesis example

Example of thesis for tests

Obviously it is impossible to write an example of a doctoral thesis due to the length and depth of it, but I leave a link so that you can read not only one but more than fifteen thousand examples of real thesis presented in different universities and faculties.

The thesis in an essay, as we have seen in its definition, is only the approach of the theory that we are going to defend, and that is what we will see in the following examples of thesis for argumentative essays.

Example of thesis on tobacco ban testing.

“Each year more countries join in passing laws to ban citizens from smoking in public spaces such as bars, cafes or restaurants. In some cases these prohibitions extend to smoking in parks, on sidewalks next to schools or even in some housing buildings declared free of tobacco.

Everyone sees well that smoking is not allowed in many places as tobacco is tremendously harmful as well as being addictive. The relationship between inhaling tobacco smoke and many types of cancer is fully demonstrated. However, no government has yet dared to draw the final law to avoid all the deaths caused by tobacco: a law that prohibits its sale.

They argue for individual freedom and the economic benefits of taxes on their sale, but I will show that all this is based on false claims and that banning tobacco would be the solution to a public health problem that has already taken too many Lives. ”

In this introduction for an argumentative essay is presented an example of a thesis that will defend the prohibition of tobacco as a solution to the health problems that lead to its consumption.

Example of thesis for essay on the impossibility of being sincere and the necessity of lying in a civilized society

“From infancy we are taught that lying is wrong and that we must be sincere. Sincerity is praised as a virtue, but nevertheless the mothers, while saying this, ask their children to tell the bill collector that they have a year less when they get on the bus to not pay the ticket. Or he scolds a child who tells a friend of his father that he does not like the gift that has brought him when asked.

Later on, throughout his life, he will learn not to damage the feelings of others by using the so-called “pious lies” and in his job as a salesman he will ask a young lady if the lady who accompanies her is his sister when it is evident Is his mother.

You can say that all these are “lies” and that you cannot really say that we miss the truth when we say them, but the truth is that we are not prepared for sincerity. The truth is too hard, it does not know about feelings and it would preclude social relations. I will demonstrate throughout this essay that if you want to live in society it is impossible to be totally sincere, indeed, we will be forced to lie every day of our lives. We will even lie to ourselves. And give thanks that it is so.

Because I will also prove that it is thanks to the lie that social relations are possible and tolerable and that without it we could not live with one another in peace and harmony. “

Marijuana legalization pros and cons research paper

The pros and cons of legalizing marijuana use

The aspirant to the Presidency was in favor of legalizing for recreational and medicinal purposes the consumption of the popular cannabis herb. While some warned that Mendoza seeks to draw attention to his candidacy with this statement, others analyzed the social implications of a measure of this nature.

For Milton Rojas, a consultant for Cero, the legalization of marijuana in Peru is not convenient due to the incidence of drug trafficking and corruption. In addition, the State could not take control of consumption, as it can not yet offer treatment to all those who suffer from infectious diseases.

“In the case of Peru, this is a particular scenario, because it is combined with a very marked narco-trafficking and corruption problem. Here to think that the state is going to take charge of the control and distribution of marijuana is utopian. The Peruvian state is trying to deal with diseases that are still uncontrollable, such as malaria and multidrug-resistant TB, “he said.

Likewise, Rojas rejected that the liberalization of the consumption, like the one of the alcohol some decades ago, is seen only from an economic perspective.

“Many economists are mistaken that this problem will only be solved from an economic perspective. It is thought that the market, when liberalized, will set the pattern of control and supply, which will reduce prices. Obviously, “he explained.

According to his view, for demand to establish the prices of marijuana would have to legalize drugs around the world, “which is utopian.”

“Chile consumes three to four times more than Peru. Uruguay and Argentina three more times. Rates of marijuana use in Peru are relatively low. By liberalizing it, it is likely to increase. Why are we going to open something that is relatively controlled? “, Asked the specialist.

BACKGROUND. The Cero expert rejected the legalization of marijuana because there is evidence that in countries where it was allowed to be freely consumed, it doubled.

Such was the case, he said, of Sweden and England. Both countries legalized the use of marijuana, but after observing the implications of this decision they chose to re-prohibit it.

“In England it was decided to allow consumption when Tony Blair was prime minister. After a few years, they verified that consumption had increased in an important way. They had to take control again. In Sweden, all the floodgates of traffic, production and consumption were opened. Finally, in Sweden they also had to step back and take control, “Rojas said.

In addition, he said that Uruguayan law that allows the consumption of marijuana is still pending regulation.

On the other hand, in the United States, where consumption has been legalized in 24 states for therapeutic purposes and in four for recreational purposes, the National Institute of Alcohol and Alcoholism has found that now double marijuana is consumed.

Water Cycle Essay

The study of the movement of water began more strongly in the mid-20th century as a result of the development of specialized sciences such as climatology,  as well as increased crop production due to increased demand for food. After the climate was affected as a result of the increase of industrialization, forest clearing, uncontrolled population growth, among other things, a new science was created related to climate change.

The cycle of water is one of the vital cycles that occurs naturally in nature, influenced by various factors such as temperature, wind, atmospheric pressure, soil, vegetation and these in turn by the effects of gases Greenhouse gases generated by the combustion of engines using fossil fuels. The life cycle of the water fulfills several functions among the main ones. It can be mentioned: Replenishing the underground water sources, maintaining the different temperature ranges, supplying water to the flora and fauna.

OBJECTIVES:
1. Describe the main components of the water cycle.
2. Expose the effects of distortion of the water cycle.

WATER’S CYCLE:

As its name indicates the water cycle is the movement of water particles in their different states, solid, liquid and gaseous, influencing the path to both physical and biological factors of the environment around us. For example if precipitation is scarce in a given area the low amount of infiltrated water will negatively affect the life of certain species of flora in the same way in the case that they are plants for productive purposes causing another effect of an indirect way to the man , Which is related to the feeding of the same and it is the production of said plants. With the simple fact of mentioning the above we can notice the high impact that has the correct fulfillment of the hydrological cycle since it can even create a chaos for the living beings that inhabit this earth.

Water is composed of bipolar molecules formed by two hydrogen atoms and one of oxygen, is an extremely important compound in terms of the solubility of many compounds in the soil, plants, humans and other living things on the other hand Has extremely important influence on many chemical and biological processes of these.

The main processes in the water cycle are:

  1. Evaporation: This is the process of the passage of water from liquid to gaseous state, carried out in various ways, one of the most important and contributing to a high degree with respect to the total amount evaporated by solar energy Which directly affects the surface of the sea as affecting the surface of the soil, generating a smaller amount of steam. Another form is the transpiration that the plants produce by absorbing the water of the soil through the roots and translocate it towards the leaves, then they are in charge of sending the water vapor through the stomas, which are openings in the part of the back of the sheet. The sweating generated by humans and animals contributes to the total of water vapor to the environment.This process is the one that contributes to the formation of the clouds in the part of the atmosphere and that soon will be precipitated by effects of a lower temperature, it is indispensable that the water is in the gaseous state so that the molecules of the same rise and can Be carried by the wind for long distances.

    2. Condensation: This is the process by which the water molecules in the gaseous state form the clouds at a lower temperature than the surface where the vapor formed. Currently due to the changes in the climate, this part of the cycle is affected since we can notice that in some regions there is little cloud formation and in others it concentrates a high density of cloudiness which creates the disparity in the precipitation since in Some places rains very little and others in excess.

    3. Precipitation: This process begins when the temperature decreases in the part of the atmosphere where a great amount of clouds is concentrated, reason why the molecules tend to attract with more force forming the water drops the same as to have a greater Weight that the gaseous state by effect of gravity fall. Of course, other factors such as topography, vegetation, and others influence. In some cases the temperature drops so much, generally to less than zero degrees Celsius that instead of falling in liquid state they do in solid precipitating either snow or hail.

Deforestation in the amount of rainfall, deforestation of the different mountainous areas, the installation of homes on land with high slopes with shallow soils and little permeable subsoils have caused landslides and flooding not only in our country but in many others Of the whole world causing death and destruction which has also strongly affected the economy of these highly vulnerable countries.

4. Infiltration: This is the process of insertion of water into the soil which is influenced by the type of soil, since in soils with a free texture or with a high percentage of organic matter, a good amount is infiltrated with respect to the soil. Precipitate, so the soil is said to be highly permeable. It also influences the degree of vegetation, the percentage of slope, rainfall intensity. On the other hand the water that does not infiltrate drains through the eroded surface the soil in the areas with high slope and little vegetation.

A percentage of the infiltrated water can be absorbed by the plants to fulfill their vital physiological cycles, sending a part into the atmosphere in the form of vapor. Another part is consumed by macro and microorganisms that are inhabiting the soil and what is not used will generally be part of the water tables, reservoirs that are then exploited by the human or poured to other water sources like lakes when the reservoir Which contained it is insufficient.

5. Runoff: As mentioned previously, water that does not infiltrate the total that precipitates in a certain area tends to flow through the surface in natural channels that we call rivers, streams and that make of a greater height to a smaller one opening either Between similar bodies that also flow, that is to say other rivers, or towards bodies like lakes or seas. The importance of this type of runoff is high because it allows to return part of the evaporated water to its initial source of production. On the other hand it is also used in other ways such as agricultural and livestock production as well as the generation of hydro-energy in a much cleaner way than in traditional way, with fossil fuels.

  1. Melting: This refers to the melting of the snow which produces the runoff as a result of it. These melts have recently been very high as a result of global warming due to the increased concentration of greenhouse gases (GHG). Finally the solidification of the vapor that forms the clouds in snow occurs to relatively low heights compared to those of formation of the hail that in general they are majors. This in the same way contributes to the entire water movement.

How to write a descriptive essay about an influential person in your life

Writing a descriptive essay can seem overwhelming, especially when writing about an influential person in your life. What you want is that your writing do justice to this person but, how can you capture the essence and complexity of a whole person? Descriptive essays do not focus on facts, but on personal experience to provide an emotionally satisfying experience for the reader. The best descriptive essays about people focus on a central theme or feature and bring out that theme or trait through detailed and specific observations. However, it should also be rich in texture and not one-dimensional.

Instructions
1
Write a list of the most influential experiences you have had with this person. This will help you to sort your thoughts and decide on the introduction of the thesis, which tells the reader what your essay is about and what you hope to prove. After reviewing the most important events, does a topic arise? For example, was your grandfather of strict discipline? Did you feel resentful as you grew up, but looking back did you realize that it had a strong impact on your life?

2
Write a list of descriptive elements about this person. Try to use the five senses. Also think about how we want to reflect this person through these descriptive elements. Your grandfather may have dressed like a lumberjack and worked 12 hours a day, but he may also have given shelter to the homeless animals. Showing a contrast effectively will give complexity and richness to your essay.
3
Write an outline of your essay that includes your thesis statement and a numbered list that details the order of the experiences and descriptive elements you are going to discuss in the essay.

4
Write a first draft of your essay, following the outline. Include your thesis statement in the first paragraph and then extract those experiences and descriptive elements to create vivid scenarios in which the reader feels that he has come to know the person and understand exactly why this person was very influential to you.

5
Check your draft several times. Do your descriptions show, not only tell, the story of how this person influenced your life? Could the reader visualize this person if they had to? Do the events in your essay flow logically and support your thesis statement?

6
Give the essay to your friends to read. Ask them to give you their general impressions and what they felt was the main point of the essay. Ask them which aspects of the essay were the most memorable or convincing and also which parts confuse or need additional work.

7
Check the draft again, if necessary, based on your friends’ comments.