The study of the movement of water began more strongly in the mid-20th century as a result of the development of specialized sciences such as climatology, as well as increased crop production due to increased demand for food. After the climate was affected as a result of the increase of industrialization, forest clearing, uncontrolled population growth, among other things, a new science was created related to climate change.
The cycle of water is one of the vital cycles that occurs naturally in nature, influenced by various factors such as temperature, wind, atmospheric pressure, soil, vegetation and these in turn by the effects of gases Greenhouse gases generated by the combustion of engines using fossil fuels. The life cycle of the water fulfills several functions among the main ones. It can be mentioned: Replenishing the underground water sources, maintaining the different temperature ranges, supplying water to the flora and fauna.
1. Describe the main components of the water cycle.
2. Expose the effects of distortion of the water cycle.
As its name indicates the water cycle is the movement of water particles in their different states, solid, liquid and gaseous, influencing the path to both physical and biological factors of the environment around us. For example if precipitation is scarce in a given area the low amount of infiltrated water will negatively affect the life of certain species of flora in the same way in the case that they are plants for productive purposes causing another effect of an indirect way to the man , Which is related to the feeding of the same and it is the production of said plants. With the simple fact of mentioning the above we can notice the high impact that has the correct fulfillment of the hydrological cycle since it can even create a chaos for the living beings that inhabit this earth.
Water is composed of bipolar molecules formed by two hydrogen atoms and one of oxygen, is an extremely important compound in terms of the solubility of many compounds in the soil, plants, humans and other living things on the other hand Has extremely important influence on many chemical and biological processes of these.
The main processes in the water cycle are:
- Evaporation: This is the process of the passage of water from liquid to gaseous state, carried out in various ways, one of the most important and contributing to a high degree with respect to the total amount evaporated by solar energy Which directly affects the surface of the sea as affecting the surface of the soil, generating a smaller amount of steam. Another form is the transpiration that the plants produce by absorbing the water of the soil through the roots and translocate it towards the leaves, then they are in charge of sending the water vapor through the stomas, which are openings in the part of the back of the sheet. The sweating generated by humans and animals contributes to the total of water vapor to the environment.This process is the one that contributes to the formation of the clouds in the part of the atmosphere and that soon will be precipitated by effects of a lower temperature, it is indispensable that the water is in the gaseous state so that the molecules of the same rise and can Be carried by the wind for long distances.
2. Condensation: This is the process by which the water molecules in the gaseous state form the clouds at a lower temperature than the surface where the vapor formed. Currently due to the changes in the climate, this part of the cycle is affected since we can notice that in some regions there is little cloud formation and in others it concentrates a high density of cloudiness which creates the disparity in the precipitation since in Some places rains very little and others in excess.
3. Precipitation: This process begins when the temperature decreases in the part of the atmosphere where a great amount of clouds is concentrated, reason why the molecules tend to attract with more force forming the water drops the same as to have a greater Weight that the gaseous state by effect of gravity fall. Of course, other factors such as topography, vegetation, and others influence. In some cases the temperature drops so much, generally to less than zero degrees Celsius that instead of falling in liquid state they do in solid precipitating either snow or hail.
Deforestation in the amount of rainfall, deforestation of the different mountainous areas, the installation of homes on land with high slopes with shallow soils and little permeable subsoils have caused landslides and flooding not only in our country but in many others Of the whole world causing death and destruction which has also strongly affected the economy of these highly vulnerable countries.
4. Infiltration: This is the process of insertion of water into the soil which is influenced by the type of soil, since in soils with a free texture or with a high percentage of organic matter, a good amount is infiltrated with respect to the soil. Precipitate, so the soil is said to be highly permeable. It also influences the degree of vegetation, the percentage of slope, rainfall intensity. On the other hand the water that does not infiltrate drains through the eroded surface the soil in the areas with high slope and little vegetation.
A percentage of the infiltrated water can be absorbed by the plants to fulfill their vital physiological cycles, sending a part into the atmosphere in the form of vapor. Another part is consumed by macro and microorganisms that are inhabiting the soil and what is not used will generally be part of the water tables, reservoirs that are then exploited by the human or poured to other water sources like lakes when the reservoir Which contained it is insufficient.
5. Runoff: As mentioned previously, water that does not infiltrate the total that precipitates in a certain area tends to flow through the surface in natural channels that we call rivers, streams and that make of a greater height to a smaller one opening either Between similar bodies that also flow, that is to say other rivers, or towards bodies like lakes or seas. The importance of this type of runoff is high because it allows to return part of the evaporated water to its initial source of production. On the other hand it is also used in other ways such as agricultural and livestock production as well as the generation of hydro-energy in a much cleaner way than in traditional way, with fossil fuels.
- Melting: This refers to the melting of the snow which produces the runoff as a result of it. These melts have recently been very high as a result of global warming due to the increased concentration of greenhouse gases (GHG). Finally the solidification of the vapor that forms the clouds in snow occurs to relatively low heights compared to those of formation of the hail that in general they are majors. This in the same way contributes to the entire water movement.